Jesus of Nazareth
—A Landmarks of Faith Seminar—
Lecture #1b Audio
Jewish Life as Jesus Experienced It
See notes below.
Lecture #1b Notes
The Biblical Sabbath is from Friday night sunset to Saturday night sunset, when the first three medium-sized stars are visible (Exo. 20:8-11, Deut. 5:12-15).
There was evening and there was morning, one day
The Rabbis listed thirty-nine kinds of work that were forbidden on the Sabbath:
The main classes of work are forty minus one: sowing, plowing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, cleansing crops, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, washing or beating or dyeing it, spinning, weaving, making two (or more) loops, weaving two (or more) threads, separating two (or more) threads, tying (a knot), loosening (a knot), sewing two (or more) stitches, tearing in order to sew two (or more) stitches, hunting a gazelle, slaughtering or flaying or salting it or curing its skin, scraping it or cutting it up, writing two (or more) letters, erasing in order to write two (or more) letters, building, pulling down, putting out a fire, lighting a fire, striking with a hammer, and taking anything out from one domain into another (from a private area to a public area or from a public area to a private area) (Shabbat 7:2).
Sabbath Day’s Journey: Limited to 2,000 cubits (just over half a mile, a little less than 1 km; Acts 1:12).
Shabbat Elevator: An elevator that automatically stops at every floor on the Sabbath (Exo. 35:3).
Discovery: Hundreds of oil lamps from the time of Jesus have been found in excavations in Israel.
The Jewish calendar is lunar, so it shifts every year compared to our solar calendar. About every three years, an extra month of Adar (VeAdar) is added to harmonize with the solar calendar.
Hanukkah: The Feast of the Dedication of the Temple, also known as the Feast of Lights, celebrated with the nine-branched Hanukkiah candlestick.
At that time, the Feast of Dedication [Hanukkah] took place in Jerusalem; it was the rainy season [winter], and Jesus was walking about in the Temple...
Passover (Pesach): The Passover Seder Meal is held the first evening of the week-long Festival of Unleavened Bread (Lev. 23:5-8). In Jesus’ day, as today, the whole week is referred to as the festival of Passover.
1 Cor. 5:7-8:
For Messiah our Passover Lamb also has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the feast, not with old leaven...but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth
Wave Offering (the Omer): An offering of the first fruits of the barley harvest (Lev. 23:9-14).
1 Cor. 15:20:
But now Messiah has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep
Counting the Omer: The fifty days between the Wave Offering (Omer) and Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-16).
Pentecost (Weeks, Shavuot): The fiftieth day (Lev. 23:16-21; Exo. 23:16). In Jesus’ day, as today, it was considered a celebration of the giving of the Law on Mt. Sinai.
When the day of Pentecost had come...
Behold, days are coming...when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel.... I will put my Law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God...
This is my covenant with them:...my Spirit which is upon you, and my words which I have put in your mouth...
New Moon (Rosh Chodesh): (Num. 10:10; 28:11-15). Celebrated every month.
Feast of Trumpets (today better known as Rosh Hashanah): Blowing of the shofar (the ram’s horn trumpet, Lev. 23:23-25).
1 Cor. 15:51,52:
We will all be changed, in a moment...at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible
Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur): A full twenty-four hour day of fasting (Lev. 23:26-32). On this day they performed the ritual of the scapegoat (Lev. 16:7-10). It’s considered a day of repentance.
...since the Fast [of the Day of Atonement] was already over...
Tabernacles (Booths, Succoth or Sukkot): The end of the fruit harvest, the final harvest of the year (Lev. 23:34-44). Families build a tabernacle, in memory of life in the desert in the time of Moses.
The Word became flesh, and tabernacled among us...
But the feast of the Jews, the Feast of Tabernacles, was near.... On the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying,
If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink.... Out of his belly will flow rivers of living water.... This he spoke about the Spirit...
Any who are left of all the Gentiles...will go up from year to year...to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles